Organic Chemis

 Essay regarding Organic Chemis

M09/4/CHEMI/HP2/ENG/TZ1/XX+

22096108

BIOCHEMISTRY AND BIOLOGY HIGHER lEvEl Conventional paper 2 Mon 18 May well 2009 (afternoon) 2 hours 15 minutes INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES Write your session number in the boxes over. Do not wide open this examination paper till instructed for this. Section A: answer all Section A in the spots provided. Section B: response two concerns from Section B. Publish your answers on answer sheets. Compose your period number on each of your answer sheet, and attach them to this examination conventional paper and your cover sheet using the tag presented. • Towards the end of the assessment, indicate the numbers of the questions responded in the candidate box in your cover bed sheet and reveal the number of bedding used in the appropriate box on your cover linen. • • • •

Candidate treatment number zero 0

2209-6108

19 webpages В© Intercontinental Baccalaureate Firm 2009

0119

–2– Section a Solution all the questions in the spaces provided. 1 .

M09/4/CHEMI/HP2/ENG/TZ1/XX+

Biodiesel uses plants' ability to fix atmospheric carbon simply by photosynthesis. Many businesses and people are now using biodiesel as being a fuel in order to reduce their particular carbon impact. Biodiesel could be synthesized coming from vegetable oil in line with the followingreaction. U H C O C R O H C O C R (l)+ 3CH3OH(l) U H C O C R L H

H

NaOH(s)

L C ALSO H C OH (l)+3 CH3 H C WOW H

To O C R (l)

vegetableoil (a)

methanol

glycerol

biodiesel [1]

Identifytheorganicfunctionalgrouppresentinbothvegetableoilandbiodiesel........................................................................

(b) For component to her prolonged essay analysis into the performance of the process, a student responded a natural sample of any vegetable oil (where R=C17H33) with methanol. Therawdatarecordedforthereactionisbelow. Massofoil sama dengan 1013. 0g Massofmethanol sama dengan 200. 0g Massofsodiumhydroxide sama dengan 3. 5g Massofbiodieselproduced= 811. 0g Therelativemolecularmassoftheoilusedbythestudentis885. 6. Calculatetheamount (inmoles)oftheoilandthemethanolused, andhencetheamount(inmoles)ofexcess [3] methanol.

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(This problem continues on the following page)

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–3– (Question 1 continued) (c)

M09/4/CHEMI/HP2/ENG/TZ1/XX+

The reversible arrows in the equation indicate the production of biodiesel is definitely an equilibriumprocess. (i) Statewhatismeantbythetermdynamic equilibrium..................................................................................................................................... (ii) Using the short-hand [vegetable oil], [methanol], [glycerol] and [biodiesel] deducetheequilibriumconstantexpression(Kc)forthisreaction. [1] [1]

(iii) Suggestareasonwhyexcessmethanolisusedinthisprocess..................................................................................................................................... (iv) Stateandexplaintheeffectthattheadditionofthesodiumhydroxidecatalystwill haveonthepositionofequilibrium. [2]#@@#@!!...................................................................................................................................................................................................... (d) Thereactantshadtobestirredvigorouslybecausetheyformedtwodistinctlayersinthe reactionvessel. Explainwhytheyformtwodistinctlayersandwhy...

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